Aspek psikologis dalam pemulihan pascabencana

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Ilustrasi: Seorang perempuan korban gempa dan tsunami menjemur udang halus tangkapan nelayan di pantai Teluk Palu, Kampung Lere, Palu, Sulawesi Tengah, Jumat (14/12/2018). | Ahmad Subaidi /ANTARA FOTO

Beritagar.id Banyaknya bencana yang terjadi membuat tahun 2018 menjadi tahun yang cukup memilukan bagi bangsa Indonesia. Bencana terjadi secara beruntun di tiga lokasi berbeda dengan dampak yang tidak kecil. Selain kerusakan infrastruktur secara fisik, manusia merupakan korban utama saat terjadinya bencana. Kehilangan keluarga, mata pencaharian, serta lingkungan sosial merupakan dampak dari bencana yang dialami manusia. 

Beberapa pihak, baik pemerintah maupun swasta dari tingkat daerah hingga pusat, bergerak cepat merespons bencana yang telah terjadi. Proses evakuasi korban, upaya pemenuhan kebutuhan bagi penyintas (orang yang berhasil bertahan dalam situasi bencana), serta pembangunan kembali infrastruktur menjadi tiga hal utama yang dilakukan dalam rangka pemulihan situasi pascabencana.

Sayangnya terdapat aspek yang sering luput dari upaya ini. Yaitu psikologis penyintas. Tidak dapat dimungkiri, bencana merupakan salah satu kejadian yang diikuti dengan trauma psikologis di kalangan penyintas.

Salah satu persoalan dalam masa rehabilitasi ini adalah masih adanya trauma psikologis di kalangan penyintas. Trauma psikologis tersebut menyebabkan seseorang menjadi tidak stabil secara emosional, kognitif, dan fisik sehingga mempengaruhi proses melakukan pemulihan pasca bencana.

Hasil kaji cepat yang telah dilakukan oleh tim peneliti dari Pusat Penelitian Kependudukan, Kedeputian Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial dan Kemanusiaan (IPSK) LIPI pada bulan Desember 2018 lalu menemukan bahwa trauma psikologis tersebut telah menyebabkan para penyintas melakukan keputusan di luar rasional mereka.

Salah satu temuan pada kaji cepat tersebut adalah seorang ibu yang berhasil selamat dari bencana di Palu dan memilih untuk kembali ke rumahnya yang berada hanya 50 meter dari lokasi likuifaksi, mengalami amblasan sedalam 1 meter serta retakan cukup parah di dinding rumahnya.

Namun, ibu tersebut memutuskan untuk tetap melanjutkan usaha laundry yang telah dijalankannya sebelum terjadi bencana. Pilihan ini cenderung berbahaya karena tempat asal tersebut dinilai masih belum aman dan membuat sang ibu kembali menjadi rentan terhadap bencana.

Namun demikian bertahan di area pengungsian juga tidak selamanya menjadi pilihan yang tepat. Hasil kaji cepat tim peneliti LIPI juga menunjukkan bahwa proses pemulihan pasca bencana cenderung bersifat top-down dan masih kurang melibatkan para penyintas. Hal ini terlihat nyata melalui pola menunggu bantuan di kalangan penyintas. Pola ini justru membuat penyintas menjadi lebih ‘tersiksa’ karena aktivitasnya terbatas sehingga mereka memiliki lebih banyak waktu untuk berpikir dan merenung.

Menurut American Psychological Association, dalam jangka waktu lama, trauma dapat menimbulkan reaksi berupa mood swingsflashback (memori kejadian yang buruk teringat secara jelas berulang kali), hubungan interpersonal yang terganggu, bahkan gejala fisik seperti sakit kepala dan mual. Memutar kembali memori kejadian bencana yang dilakukan penyintas saat berdiam diri di daerah pengungsian akan memicu penyintas untuk menjadi lebih tertekan secara emosional.

Lantas, langkah apa yang dapat dilakukan? Hasil kaji cepat tim IPSK LIPI merekomendasikan beberapa hal.

Pertama yaitu pelibatan penyintas bencana secara aktif. Proses pemulihan pascabencana berupa pemenuhan kebutuhan dasar -yaitu tempat tinggal dan pekerjaan seringkali- hanya menempatkan penyintas bencana sebagai objek. Padahal, dengan melibatkan mereka secara aktif akan memberi peluang bagi mereka untuk mengaktualisasikan diri dan mengalihkan pikiran mereka dari kenangan akan musibah yang telah mereka alami.

Proses aktualisasi diri dalam bentuk kegiatan ekonomi maupun pembangunan huntara (hunian sementara) secara gotong royong akan menjadi beberapa upaya pemulihan trauma pascabencana secara alami.

Kedua, perlu dilakukan proses pendampingan secara intensif terhadap penyintas dengan keadaan tertentu. Hal ini dikarenakan akibat psikologis yang dialami para penyintas sebenarnya dapat bervariasi. Tergantung dari seberapa besar paparan yang dialami saat bencana misalnya berupa cedera fisik, penyaksian kematian atau cedera individu lain, dan ancaman terhadap hidup penyintas.

Respons penyintas terhadap musibah bencana tersebut akan terwujud dalam kondisi emosional dengan kadar yang berbeda-beda. Salah satu proses pemulihan yang perlu dilalui para penyintas adalah pindah dari daerah asal ke huntara yang berlokasi lebih aman.

Seperti kasus sebelumnya, tidak semua penyintas akan mau meninggalkan tempat asalnya. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan pendampingan dan pendekatan berkelanjutan untuk membantu penyintas memilih pilihan rasional.

Ketiga, perlu dilakukannya sinergi dan integrasi proses pengumpulan data sehingga penyintas tidak ditanyai berkali-kali tentang hal yang sama.

Peristiwa bencana memang merupakan hal yang menarik perhatian banyak pihak. Banyak data dan informasi yang ingin dikumpulkan dari suatu kejadian bencana dengan sasaran para penyintas sebagai sumber informasi. Wawancara pada para penyintas memang bukan sesuatu yang merugikan, bahkan memberi ruang bagi penyintas untuk menyalurkan kesedihannya melalui cerita yang diutarakannya.

Namun, proses wawancara ini juga seharusnya tidak berlebihan dan membuat para penyintas tertekan karena harus secara berulang mengenang peristiwa bencana yang menimpanya.

Bencana yang berturut-turut terjadi di tahun 2018 tidak selamanya memberi dampak negatif bagi bangsa ini. Peristiwa bencana tersebut menyadarkan kita untuk membangun budaya sadar bencana dalam berbagai level -baik pemerintah pusat, pemerintah daerah, masyarakat, keluarga, hingga individu.

Tantangannya adalah mengubah paradigma dalam menghadapi bencana sehingga upaya yang dilakukan dalam proses pemulihan bencana tidak hanya bersifat reaktif. Pertimbangan aspek psikologis para penyintas menjadi penting karena kapasitas mereka menjadi garda depan dalam proses pemulihan bencana.

Marya Yenita Sitohang, peneliti di Pusat Penelitian Kependudukan LIPI.
Catatan RedaksiArtikel ini telah mengalamai update pada Kamis, 23 Januari 2019, pukul 11:36 WIB, dengan sejumlah tambahan detil informasi di beberapa bagian dari penulisnya.

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