“Bercukur” di Indonesia

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Ilustrasi: Deforestasi | Anbel /Shutterstock

Beritagar.id Pada masa 1980-an, Indonesia ingin menjadi negara makmur dengan pelbagai kebijakan rezim Orde Baru. Makmur itu paling kentara di urusan pangan dan tubuh para pejabat semakin gemuk. 

Pengertian makmur itu berbeda dengan tatapan mata publik ke bukit, hutan, atau gunung. Makmur tentu pohon rimbun, hijau, dan indah. Imajinasi tanah-tanah memiliki pepohonan itu agak sulit dituruti di masa Orde Baru.

Seruan pembangunan nasional yang terdengar di telinga pejabat dan pemilik duit adalah industri. Pengertian industri itu berlawanan dari lakon agraris. Mereka cuma mengartikan industri itu pabrik atau bisnis-bisnis yang lekas menghasilkan uang.

Pada masa Orde Baru, mata kita lumrah melihat hutan-hutan tak gondrong alias gundul. Di mata rezim, pohon mungkin “musuh” ketimbang sumber kebaikan, kemakmuran, kesegaran, dan keindahan. Pohon-pohon “dicukur” demi pendirian bisnis-bisnis berdalih pembangunan nasional.

Di tepian keramaian slogan dan impian rezim Orde Baru, lelaki ceking bernama Joko Pinurbo menggubah puisi berjudul “Tukang Cukur”. Puisi bergelimang sindiran berlatar kebijakan politik-industri masa lalu.

Pada 1989, ia bercerita: Ia membabat padang rumput yang tumbuh subur/ di kepalaku. Ia membabat rasa damai yang merimbun/ sepanjang waktu.

Tukang cukur itu memiliki kekuasaan, berhak berlaku sesuai keinginan, selera, dan pamrih. Indonesia sedang “dipatuhkan” tukang cukur yang mengaku sedang bekerja menunaikan misi-misi besar.

Celotehan “tukang cukur” terasa kejam dengan perhitungan untung-rugi. Kita mungkin membaca sedih dan geram tapi susah memberi protes saat Soeharto masih berkuasa.

Ia mengatakan: “Di bekas hutan ini akan kubangun bandara, hotel,/ dan restoran. Tentunya juga sekolah, rumah bordil, dan tempat ibadah.”

Kerja-kerja kontradiktif di pengertian pencarian untung besar atau berlagak berpihak ke pendidikan dan agama. Dulu, sekian kebijakan memang tumpang-tindih memberi misi-misi tak keruan. Hutan jadi sasaran dari kerja mencukur atau menggunduli sambil mencipta ilusi kemakmuran.

Pada masa 1980-an, Joko Pinurbo dan orang-orang Indonesia belum membaca terjemahan buku berjudul Kosmos (2016) garapan Carl Sagan. Di situ, sejarah tanah adalah sejarah manusia membentuk peradaban memuat segala pemajuan ilmu, seni, teknologi, pertanian, dan bahasa.

Pada tanah, para leluhur kita menunaikan kerja-kerja untuk hidup. Mereka bertani dan membangun rumah. Upacara demi upacara diadakan memuji dan mengawetkan kesuburan tanah. Pada capaian makna terpuncak, umat manusia mengakui bahwa bumi itu “rumah kita” dan “orangtua kita.”

Di Indonesia masa 1980-an, tabiat durhaka dipamerkan para pejabat dan kaum serakah uang. Hutan-hutan yang dicukur menghasilkan duit dan petaka yang terlalu memberi nestapa berkepanjangan. Joko Pinurbo tak lupa menuliskan pengakuan “hutan” atas nalar-nalar keserakahan “tukang cukur” yang ingin berlimpahan duit dan meraih gengsi tertinggi.

“Hutan” itu bersedih atas ulah penguasa dan kaum gandrung uang: Ia menyayat-nyayat kepalaku./ Ia mengkapling-kapling tanah pusaka nenekmoyangku.

Ingatan kita pada masa Orde Baru adalah ulah “tukang cukur” berdalih industrialisasi atau pembangunan nasional.

Kita memang jarang memilih metafora “tukang cukur” dalam pengisahan (ulang) lakon Orde Baru. Dulu, kita cuma diajak prihatin dan terlibat dalam reboisasi gara-gara hutan gundul. Pihak yang paling bersalah sering ditudingkan ke warga ketimbang kaum pemilik modal.

Hutan gundul lekas saja berarti tanah longsor dan banjir. Penjelasan itu sering dimuat di buku pelajaran dan pidato para pejabat.

Kita jarang dikenalkan dengan sebutan “tukang cukur” untuk mengisahkan tabiat terkutuk para pemilik kekuasaan dan uang di Indonesia. Sekian pemimpi untung itu berasal pula dari negeri-negeri asing.

Keruntuhan rezim Orde Baru belum memberi jera atas ulah “mencukur” hutan-hutan seantero Indonesia. Joko Pinurbo masih tetap tekun mengartikan “tukang cukur” dan “mencukur” sebagai cara mengomentari nasib Indonesia yang terus kehilangan hutan.

Sejak ribuan tahun silam Indonesia itu memiliki sejarah negeri berhutan. Pada abad XX, hutan itu “digunduli” dan dipaksa bernasib apes. Agenda “mencukur” terbenarkan oleh kebijakan-kebijakan keparat berdalih memajukan dan memakmurkan Indonesia.

Pada 1999, Joko Pinurbo menggubah puisi berjudul “Bercukur Sebelum Tidur”. Kita menduga itu kebiasaan lazim. Di puisi, kita malah dijerumuskan ke masa lalu buruk dan masa depan belum tentu bersumber dari tindakan “bercukur” yang belum rampung meski rezim Orde Baru tumbang.

Joko Pinurbo terlalu serius bercerita, mengabsenkan humor: Tubuhku hutan yang dikemas/ menjadi kawasan megaindustri/ di mana segala cemas segala resah/ diolah di sentra-sentra produksi.

Pada tahun-tahun sibuk membenahi politik itu ajakan Joko Pinurbo melihat nasib hutan terdengar lirih. Kesibukan politik dan kerja mengatasi krisis ekonomi telah turut membuat sambungan “roman buruk” bagi hutan-hutan di Indonesia.

Kita mungkin masih ingat seruan Chicho Mendes di buku berjudul Berjuang Menyelamatkan Hutan: Sebuah Kata Hati (1994). Buku itu mengajukan kasus-kasus getir bertema hutan di dunia.

Bermula dari hutan di Brazil, bergemalah seruan-seruan serak dan sedih mengajak penghentian pembinasaan hutan. Pembinasaan mengakibatkan bencana-bencana ekologi terburuk di abad XX.

T Gross bermufakat atas kemarahan Chico Mendes: “Memang benar bahwa peningkatan taraf penggundulan hutan tropik akan membawa malapetaka tak terperikan bagi kemanusiaan, malapetaka bagi ilmu, estetika, dan di atas semua itu, moral.”

Penggundulan itu terbahasakan oleh Joko Pinurbo dengan “mencukur” atau “pencukuran” menggunakan mesin-mesin dipaksa mengobarkan kejahatan. Nasib hutan-hutan di Indonesia tak jauh beda dengan Brazil atau negara-negara di Amerika Latin.

Pada 2019, terbit buku puisi terbaru Joko Pinurbo berjudul Surat Kopi. Ia agak reda dari marah berlatar abad XX. Ia masih berpikiran tukang cukur tapi beda cerita.

Di puisi berjudul “Surat Cukur”, Joko Pinurbo agak lucu tapi tetap memiliki sinis. Bait yang agak mengenang: Di masa kecilku tukang cukur itu/ pernah menggunduli kepalaku/ di bawah pohon beringin,/ lalu mengantarku pulang/ dengan sepedanya. Setelah itu/ aku tak pernah lagi melihatnya.

Biografi bocah-bocah masa lalu memang bercukur rambut ke tukang cukur mangkal di bawah pohon atau tukang cukur keliling kampung membawa kursi lipat dan cermin gampang digantung. Dulu, bocah-bocah bocah-bocah sering dicukur gundul atau kuncung. Selera terlalu klise.

Bocah-bocah pun pernah dihinggapi ketakutan pada tukang cukur gara-gara gunting dan silet. Imajinasi mereka mungkin luka dan berdarah, belum kebablasan ke imajinasi politis dan bisnis.

Puisi itu lupa dibacakan saat Joko Widodo turut dalam acara cukur massal di Situ Bagendit, Garut, Jawa Barat, 19 Januari 2019. Tukang cukur langganan bernama Herman mencukur rambut Joko Widodo.

Tukang cukur tak menggunduli tapi merapikan rambut. Tukang cukur itu masih sering gugup saat mencukur rambut tokoh terpenting di Indonesia.

Joko Widodo bercukur di bawah pohon rindang sambil menghadap Situ Bagendit. Peristiwa mencukur rambut cuma 15 menit. Kita berhak berharapan Joko Widodo mau membaca tiga puisi gubahan Joko Pinurbo.

Puisi-puisi bakal memberi ingatan ke Joko Widodo mengenai lakon hutan di situasi politik pelik dan impian masa depan Indonesia.

Begitu.

Bandung Mawardi, pengelola Bilik Literasi Solo

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